TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies. This journal, with print-ISSN 2085-0980 and online-ISSN 2685-2284, was firstly published on October 28, 2009, in the context to commemorate the Youth Pledge Day in Indonesia. The TAWARIKH journal was organized by the Lecturers of Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN SGD (State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, since issue of April 2016 to October 2017; and published by Minda Masagi Suci and ASPENSI (International Association for Historians and History Educators) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

The TAWARIKH journal is published every April and October. This journal is dedicated not only for Indonesian scholars who concern about History Education and Historical Studies, but also welcome to the scholars of Southeast Asian countries and around the world who care and share related to the History Education and Historical Studies in general. 

The TAWARIKH journal is devoted, but not limited to, history education, historical studies, and any new development and advancement in the field of history education and historical studies. The scope of our journal includes: (1) History Education and National Character Building; (2) Political, Social, Cultural and Educational History; (3) Education, History, and Social Awareness; (4) Economic History and Welfare State; (5) Science, Technology and Society in Historical Perspectives; (6) Religion and Philosophy in Historical Perspectives; and (7) Visual Arts, Dance, Music, and Design in Historical Perspectives.

For Indonesian scholars, it is important to note here that the TAWARIKH journal has been accredited by Ditjendikti Kemdikbud RI (Directorate-General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia) for period 2012 to 2017; and also indexed by Google Scholar as well as SINTA (Science and Technology Indexing) Level 2 owned by Kemenristekdikti (Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia) in Jakarta.

Since early 2016, the website of TAWARIKH journal has migrated to website based on OJS (Open Journal System) program at: www.journals.mindamas.com/index.php/tawarikh. However, the conventional e-mail address for sending the articles is still able to: tawarikh.journal2009@gmail.com and mindamas.journals@gmail.com

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Foreword for
TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies
Volume 12(2), April 2021.

Andi SUWIRTA, M.Hum.
A Lecturer at the Department of History Education FPIPS UPI (Faculty of Social Studies Education, Indonesia University of Education); and Secretary-General of ASPENSI (International Association for Historians and History Educators) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. E-mail: suciandi@upi.edu 

Actual history is history that is relevant to the present context. Interpreting the history of the past, therefore, must be relevant to the needs and challenges of today's times. The old-fashioned generation cannot impose its views and desires on the Millennial generation. If each generation has its own challenges and problems, then the Millennial generation now also has the right to play a role so that it is recorded in its own historical narrative.

The current generation is generally dazzled by the roles that have been played by previous generations. But for Millennials who are history literate, they will remain aware and critically understand the historical roles of previous generations, which can also be actualized in the present and here context.

The articles presented in the TAWARIKH journal, April 2021 edition, examine the past, but are still relevant to contemporary needs. Thus, it is true the statement that actual History is history that has to do with contemporary needs. Studying history only for the sake of the past is clearly irrelevant and also not interesting, due to in fact historical events only happened once, and it took place in the past which will not be repeated again, because of its unique and particular nature, not general and repeated.

The first article, written by Awangku Muhammad Nabeel bin Pengiran Haji Kamarul Zaman, Nani Suryani binti Haji Abu Bakar & Haji Awang Asbol bin Haji Mail of Brunei Darussalam, entitled “A Brief History of Brunei Noble Rank between 1958 and 1959: A Restructuring”, examined that there was a restructuring to the ranking of Brunei nobles during the reign of Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien III, 1950-1967. The restructuring, which occurred on the eve and following the promulgation of the 1959 Constitution, was indirectly influenced by the role of Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin, 1885-1906, in the 1905/1906 Supplementary Agreement.

The second article, written by M. Dien Madjid & Johan Wahyudi of Indonesia, entitled “Stability above Instability: Trade and Anti-Colonialization in Sukadana in XIX Century”, explained that the entry of VOC (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or Dutch East-India Company)’s merchants made this port even more lively, but also more prone to being divided. Due to the deeper infiltration into the association of the Sukadana palace, this kingdom was split into three parts. These three were Panembahan Sukadana, Panembahan Matan, and Panembahan Simpang.

The third article, written by Abdul Haris Fatgehipon of Indonesia, entitled “The Exodus of KNIL Soldiers from Maluku to the Netherlands in 1950s”, stated that the transition of power on 27 December 1949, resulted in a conflict between pro-Indonesian and pro-Dutch forces, namely the KNIL (Koninklijke Nederlands Indische Leger or the Royal Netherlands Indies Army). The group that was pro-Dutch, chose to exodus to the Netherlands.

The fourth article, written by Asmahani Muhthar, Abdul Razaq Ahmad & Mohd Mahzan Awang of Malaysia, entitled “Application of Blending Learning Based on the Issue of 13 May 1969 for Teaching and Learning in Malaysia”, described that History subjects require the application of methods that can stimulate interest and can motivate students in following the teaching and learning of history without feeling bored, especially in the topic of 13 May 1969’s events in Malaysia, which requires interpretation and rationalization of the causes and consequences of the events. The use of blended learning in teaching and learning for this topic is seen as an effective method in shaping the ability to think creatively and imagination, while achieving understanding to students.

Lastly, the fifth article, written by Dinn Wahyudin, Agus Sumule & Andi Suwirta of Indonesia, entitled “Alternatives of Genuine Basic Education Program in Papua Provinces, Indonesia”, showed that there are several considerations behind the need for a strategy to adjust the implementation of education in Papua. Especially basic education for rural and remote communities in “Tanah” (Land) of Papua. One of them is that currently the educational attainment in these two Provinces are relatively behind compared to most other Provinces in Indonesia.

Do enjoy reading the scientific articles in the TAWARIKH journal, April 2021 edition. Hopefully there will be many benefits. 

Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 30, 2021.

Journal Cover of TAWARIKH, Edition of April 2021:

Organized and Published by:


Minda Masagi Suci and ASPENSI (International Association for Historians and History Educators) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Website: www.mindamas.com  

The website of KEMENRISTEKDIKTI RI (Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia) in Jakarta related to the scholarly journals is also available online at: http://simlitabmas.ristekdikti.go.id

Vol 12, No 2 (2021)

Table of Contents


Awangku Muhammad Nabeel bin Pengiran Haji Kamarul Zaman, Nani Suryani binti Haji Abu Bakar, Haji Awang Asbol bin Haji Mail
Abstract views: 730       PDF downloads: 335
M Dien Madjid, Johan Wahyudi
Abstract views: 472       PDF downloads: 95
Abdul Haris Fatgehipon
Abstract views: 396       PDF downloads: 125
Asmahani Muhthar, Abdul Razaq Ahmad, Mohd Mahzan Awang
Abstract views: 442       PDF downloads: 107
Dinn Wahyudin, Agus Sumule, Andi Suwirta
Abstract views: 372       PDF downloads: 91
Editor Journal TAWARIKH
Abstract views: 90       PDF downloads: 30
Editor Journal TAWARIKH
Abstract views: 96       PDF downloads: 29
Editor Journal TAWARIKH
Abstract views: 98       PDF downloads: 25