TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies. This journal, with print-ISSN 2085-0980 and online-ISSN 2685-2284, was firstly published on October 28, 2009, in the context to commemorate the Youth Pledge Day in Indonesia. The TAWARIKH journal was organized by the Lecturers of Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN SGD (State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, since issue of April 2016 to October 2017; and published by Minda Masagi Press, a publishing house owned by ASPENSI (the Association of Indonesian Scholars of History Education) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

The TAWARIKH journal is published every April and October. This journal is dedicated not only for Indonesian scholars who concern about History Education and Historical Studies, but also welcome to the scholars of Southeast Asian countries and around the world who care and share related to the History Education and Historical Studies in general. 

The TAWARIKH journal is devoted, but not limited to, history education, historical studies, and any new development and advancement in the field of history education and historical studies. The scope of our journal includes: (1) History Education and National Character Building; (2) Political, Social, Cultural and Educational History; (3) Education, History, and Social Awareness; (4) Economic History and Welfare State; (5) Science, Technology and Society in Historical Perspectives; (6) Religion and Philosophy in Historical Perspectives; and (7) Visual Arts, Dance, Music, and Design in Historical Perspectives.

For Indonesian scholars, it is important to note here that the TAWARIKH journal has been accredited by Ditjendikti Kemdikbud RI (Directorate-General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia) for period 2012 to 2017; and also indexed by Google Scholar as well as SINTA (Science and Technology Indexing) Level 2 owned by Kemenristekdikti (Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia) in Jakarta.

Since early 2016, the website of TAWARIKH journal has migrated to website based on OJS (Open Journal System) program at: www.journals.mindamas.com/index.php/tawarikh. However, the conventional e-mail address for sending the articles is still able to: tawarikh.journal2009@gmail.com and mindamas.journals@gmail.com

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Forewords for
TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies
Volume 12(1), October 2020.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Haji Awang Asbol bin Haji Mail
A Lecturer at the Academy of Brunei Studies UBD (University of Brunei Darussalam); and Experts Board Secretary of ASPENSI (International Association for Historians and History Educators) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. E-mail: asbol.mail@ubd.edu.bn 

In this era of a borderless world, the study of history seems to have been left out of the current development of knowledge and human civilization. The development of knowledge triggered by the Information Technology revolution has changed the pattern and ecosystem of human life and habits from the individual, family, society, to the nation-building.

When it comes to the issue of nation-building, whether realized or not, the people of this era need to go through the pages of old history. Otherwise, nation-building will not have a solid track and foundation. Only in the pages of old history, which requires thorough study and exploration, to know the origins of a nation leading to the study of language, religion, system of society, to the system of government.

When Brunei Darussalam declared concept of MIB (Melayu Islam Beraja or Malay Islamic Monarchy), as holdings of the nation in 1984, during which it gained independence from the British, then raised the question of why and how various MIB concept is necessary in Brunei Darussalam. Apparently, in order to answer this question, it is necessary to have a historical study to provide a solid answer.

When studied the history of Brunei Darussalam, it cannot be denied that the country belongs to the Malays, came under the rule of Malay, with Islam as a way of life and the faith of Bruneian community life. The concept of MIB should be used and defended in Brunei Darussalam, because it has been proven – through historical studies – to bring prosperity and harmony to various walks of life in Brunei Darussalam.

A life full of grace, bestowed by Allah SWT (Subhanahu Wa-Ta’ala or God Almighty) in the nation and state under the umbrella of this MIB concept cannot only be enjoyed by the Muslim community, but even more than that is also felt by non-Muslims. They are treated equally and not oppressed, as is the case with some Muslims who are sheltered as minorities around the World.

The importance of the study of history in nation-building not only applies to Brunei Darussalam, but also to other countries in the World. The emergence of “Rukun Negara” (Pillars of State) in Malaysia and “Panca Sila” (Five Basic Principles) in Indonesia, for example, cannot be fabricated just like that without the solid evidence that has been displayed by the results of historical studies.

Thus, in the face of the influence of borderless world life and it is difficult to anticipate what will happen in the future, then the study of history cannot be ignored. The study of history does not only belong to scholars and students of history, but it is a public property that everyone needs to know. Usually people who forget history will repeat the mistakes of the past. Do not let us be bitten by a snake twice in the same hole.

The scientific articles in the TAWARIKH journal, October 2020 edition, do not specifically examine the importance of the discipline of history and its relation to the development of the nation-state. However, these scientific articles still see the importance of historical studies in various aspects of life that are multidimensional and complex. Any field of life still requires historical studies and perspectives, so that it can be understood properly and comprehensively in the context of the present and here now. The past is indeed not history, but the past which has been studied and written systematically, scientifically, logically, and comprehensively has become a History.

Scientific articles on the Early Development of Islam in Aceh, Sumatra; Regional Autonomy and its Problems in Jember, East Java; the Role of Sultan Zainal Abidin Syah from Tidore in North Maluku; Identifying Learning Processes for Children with Disabilities in Nigeria; and Changing Ritual in Christianity and its Relation to Local Traditions, all of which require study and perspective from the historical discipline, so that the elements of continuity and change become very clear and easily understood by us, as the readers, who live in different times and places.

Enjoy reading the scientific articles in the TAWARIKH journal, October 2020 edition. Hopefully there will be many benefits. 

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam: October 30, 2020.

Journal Cover of TAWARIKH, Edition of October 2020:

Organized and Published by:


Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI (Association of Indonesian Scholars of History Education) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Website: www.mindamas.com  

The website of KEMENRISTEKDIKTI RI (Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia) in Jakarta related to the scholarly journals is also available online at: http://simlitabmas.ristekdikti.go.id

Vol 12, No 1 (2020)

Table of Contents


M Dien Madjid, Johan Wahyudi
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Retno Winarni, Ratna Endang Widuatie
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Abdul Haris Fatgehipon, Satriono Priyo Utomo
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Florence Bosede Famolu
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Dewi Salindri
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Editor Journal TAWARIKH
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Editor Journal TAWARIKH
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Editor Journal TAWARIKH
Abstract views: 70       PDF downloads: 19