Differences in Student Self-Efficacy by Gender

Nur Anisah Jamil


ABSTRACT: Learning achievement cannot be separated from learning itself, because learning is a process; while learning achievement is the result of the learning process. In practical education, during the learning process, many students are not confidence that they can do the task well or get good grades in each lesson, even it is believed before they do the task. Individuals who have low self-efficacy will make the individual doubt, divert, and slow in making decisions, experience difficulties and obstacles in the work process, lack of optimizing and negative understanding that hinders personal development, even to the level of anxiety that inhibits the learning process. This study aims to determine differences in self-efficacy based on the sex of students in SMAIT (Sekolah Menengah Atas Islam Terpadu or Integrated Islamic Senior High School) Miftahul Khoir in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. This study uses a quantitative approaches with Independent Sample T Test. The source of this research data is primary data. Data collection of this study uses a questionnaire. The sample of this study was SMAIT Miftahul Khoir students in Bandung, in the 2016/2017 school year, totaling 48 students. The results of this study found that overall these findings indicate that there is a difference in self-efficacy both from the dimensions of magnitude, strength, and generality of students between male and female students in SMAIT Miftahul Khoir. The findings of this study show that male adolescent self-efficacy is higher than female adolescents. Students can maximize their confidence through evaluation every daily test or every semester test, so as to achieve better learning achievement.

KEY WORDS: Self-Efficacy; Magnitude; Strength; Generality; Gender.

About the Author: Nur Anisah Jamil, S.Kom.I. is a Student of Educational Psychology at the Graduate School UPI (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia or Indonesia University of Education), Jalan Dr. Setiabudhi No.229 Bandung 40154, West Java, Indonesia. For academic interests, the author is able to be contacted via e-mail at: nuranisahj17@gmail.com

Suggested Citation: Jamil, Nur Anisah. (2018). “Differences in Student Self-Efficacy by Gender” in EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, Volume 11(1), August, pp.17-28. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI with ISSN 1979-7877 (print) and ISSN 2621-587X (online).

Article Timeline: Accepted (May 20, 2018); Revised (June 1, 2018); and Published (August 30, 2018).


Self-Efficacy; Magnitude; Strength; Generality; Gender

Full Text:



Abridah, A.I.A. (2012). “The Influence of National and Organisational Culture on Creativity in Libyan Work Environments”. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. UK [United Kingdom]: Department of Leadership and Management, Business School, the University of Huddersfield. Available online also at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6b33 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Akmal, V.E. (2013). “Perbedaan Prokrastinasi Akademik Berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin dengan Mengontrol Manajemen Waktu pada Mahasiswa yang Kuliah Sambil Bekerja di Yogyakarta” dalam EMPATHY: Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi, Volume 2, hlm.1-15.

Alam, Lukis. (2017). “Becoming Modern Muslim: New Emerging Trends of Islamic Schools in Yogyakarta” in TA’DIB: Journal of Islamic Education, Vol.22, No.1 [June], pp.75-86.

Ames, Carole & Jennifer Archer. (1988). “Achievement Goals in the Classroom: Students' Learning Strategies and Motivation Processes” in Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.80, No.3, pp.260-267. Available online also at: http://groups.jyu.fi/sporticus/lahteet/LAHDE_10.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Amir, Hermansyah. (2016). “Korelasi Pengaruh Faktor Efikasi Diri dan Manajemen Diri terhadap Motivasi Berprestasi pada Mahasiswa Pendidikan Kimia Universitas Bengkulu” dalam Manajer Pendidikan, Vol.10, No.4 [Juli], hlm.336-342.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2008). Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Rineka Cipta, edisi revisi ke-6.

Arkkelin, Daniel. (2014). “Using SPSS to Understand Research and Data Analysis” in Psychology Curricular Materials: Book 1. Available online also at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/psych_oer/1 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Artino, Jr., A.R. (2012). “Academic Self-Efficacy: From Educational Theory to Instructional Practice” in Perspectives on Medical Education, Volume 1(2), April, pp.76-85. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3540350/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: H.W. Freeman.

Barrett, L.F. (2009). “The Future of Psychology: Connecting Mind to Brain” in Perspectives of Psychology Sciences, Volume 4(4), pp.326-339. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2763392/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Bethlehem, J. (1999). “Cross-Sectional Research” in H.J. Ader & G.J. Mellenbergh [eds]. Research Methodology in the Life, Behavioural, and Social Sciences. London, UK [United Kingdom]: Sage.

Blazar, D. & M.A. Kraft. (2017). “Teacher and Teaching Effects on Students’ Attitudes and Behaviors” in Education Evaluation & Policy Analysis, Volume 39(1), pp.146-170. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5602565/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Brunstein, J.C. & G.W. Maier. (2005). “Implicit and Self-Attributed Motives to Achieve: Two Separate but Interacting Needs” in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 89, pp.205-222.

Cook, D.A. & A.R. Artino. (2016). “Motivation to Learn: An Overview of Contemporary Theories” in Medical Education, Volume 50(10), pp.997-1014. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5113774/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Davids, Samantha. (2015). “The Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Goal-Setting, and Achievement Motivation among Final Year Students at a Selected University in the Western Cape Province”. Unpublished Masters Thesis. South Africa: The Department of Industrial Psychology, University of the Western Cape. Available online also at: https://etd.uwc.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11394/5235/Davids [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Evaliana, Yulia. (2015). “Pengaruh Efikasi Diri dan Lingkungan Keluarga terhadap Minat Berwirausaha Siswa” dalam Jurnal Pendidikan Bisnis dan Manajemen, Vol.1, No.1 [Juli], hlm.1-70.

Farihah, Salwa. (2013). “Hubungan antara Efikasi Diri dengan Motivasi Berprestasi pada Siswa SMA Muhammadiyah 6 Yogyakarta”. Skripsi Sarjana Tidak Diterbitkan. Yoryakarta: FIP UNY [Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta].

Feldman, Robert S. (2013). Psychology and Your Life. New York: McGraw Hill-Companies, Inc.

Fincham, F. & K. Cain. (1986). “Learned Helplessness in Humans: A Developmental Analysis” in Developmental Review, Volume 6, pp.138-156.

Folland, Gerald B. (1999). Real Analysis: Modern Techniques and Their Applications. USA [United States of America]: Wiley.

Friedman, N.P. et al. (2006). “Not All Executive Functions are Related to Intelligence” in Psychological Science, Volume 17, pp.172-179.

Gliem, Joseph A. & Rosemary R. Gliem. (2003). “Calculating, Interpreting, and Reporting Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales”. Paper presented in the Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, Available online also at: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/bitstream/handle/1805/344/gliem+&+gliem.pdf?sequence=1 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Halpern, Diane F. et al. (2007). “The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics” in Psychological Science on Public Interest, Volume 8(1), August, pp.1-51, doi: 10.1111/j.1529-1006.2007.00032.x. Available online also at: http://www.gernsbacherlab.org/wp-content/uploads/papers/1/Halpern_PSPI_2007.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Halpern, D. (2012). Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. New York: Psychology Press, 4th edition.

Handono, Oki Tri. (2013). “Hubungan antara Penyesuaian Diri dan Dukungan Sosial terhadap Stres Lingkungan pada Santri Baru” dalam EMPHATY: Jurnal Fakultas Psikologi, Vol.2 No.1, ISSN 2303-114X.

Hanun, Farida. (2013). “Pengaruh Efikasi Diri, Iklim Kerja, dan Motivasi Berprestasi terhadap Kinerja Kepala Madrasah: Survey di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Kota Bekasi” dalam Jurnal Analisa, Vol.20, No.01 [Juni].

Harsyah, Nadia Rizqiana & Annastasia Ediati. (2015). “Perbedaan Sikap Laki-laki dan Perempuan terhadap Infertilitas” dalam Jurnal Empati, Volume 4(4), Oktober, hlm.225-232. Available online also at: http://download.portalgaruda.org/article.php?article=472749 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Hidayat, Dede Rahmat. (2011). Psikologi Kepribadian dalam Konseling. Jakarta: Penerbit Indeks.

Hungu. (2007). Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia. Jakarta: Penerbit Grasindo, Translaltion.

Ifdil, I. et al. (2016). “Level of Students` Self-Efficacy Based on Gender” in The International Journal of Counseling and Education, Vol.1, No.1 [December], pp.29-33. Available online also at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312927483_Level_of_students_self-efficacy_based_on_gender [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Interview with Respondent A, one of the students of SMAIT (Sekolah Menengah Atas Islam Terpadu or Integrated Islamic Senior High School) Miftahul Khoir in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, on 28 October 2017.

Jantschi, Lorentz & Sorana D. Bolboaca. (2018). “Computation of Probability Associated with Anderson–Darling Statistic” in Mathematics, Volume 6, doi: 10.3390/math6060088.

Kaewmanee, Naruemon. (2016). “The Impact QSR’S CSR Program Influences on QSR Brand Choice in Bangkok”. Unpublished M.B.A. Thesis. Bangkok, Thailand: The Graduate School of Bangkok University. Available online also at: http://dspace.bu.ac.th/bitstream/123456789/2084/1/naruemon_kaew.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Kerns, G. Jay. (2018). “Introduction to Probability and Statistics Using R”. Available online at: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/IPSUR/vignettes/IPSUR.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: July 30, 2018].

Khan, M. (2013). “Academic Self-Efficacy, Coping, and Academic Perfomance in College” in International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 5, pp.01-11.

Kolmogorov, A. (1933). “Sulla Determinazione Empirica di Una Legge di Distribuzione” in Giornale dell’Istituto Italiano degli Attuari, Volume 4, pp.83-91.

Lai, Emily R. (2011). “Motivation: A Literature Review”. Research Report. Available online also at: https://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/tmrs/Motivation_Review_final.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Lee, James. (1994). “Odds Ratio or Relative Risk for Cross-Sectional Data?” in International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 23(1), pp.201-213.

Lerner, Jennifer S. et al. (2014). “Emotion and Decision Making” in Annual Review of Psychology. Available online also at: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jenniferlerner/files/annual_review_manuscript_june_16_final.final_.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Luong, G., S.T. Charles & K.L. Fingerman. (2011). “Better with Age: Social Relationships Across Adulthood” in Journal of Social Perspective Relations, Volume 28(1), February, pp.9-23. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3291125/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Luszczynska, Aleksandra & Benicio Gutierrez-Donna. (2005). “General Self-Efficacy in Various Domains of Human Functioning: Evidence from Five Countries” in International Journal of Psychology, Volume 40(2), pp.80-89. Available online also at: http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/materials/lu_2005_self.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

McCormick, M.J., J. Tanguma & A.S. Lopez-Forment. (2002). “Extending Self-Efficacy Theory to Leadership: A Review and Empirical Test” in Journal of Leadership Education, Volume 1, Issue 2 [Winter]. Available online also at: http://journalofleadershiped.org/attachments/article/23/JOLE [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Mih, Codruta & Viorel Mih. (2010). “Components of Self-Regulated Learning: Implications for School Performance” in Acta Didactica Napocensia, Volume 3, Number 1. Available online also at: http://dppd.ubbcluj.ro/adn/article_3_1_5.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Mustaqim. (2011). Psikologi Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Mutmainah, S. (2007). “Studi tentang Perbedaan Evaluasi Etis, Intensi Etis (Ethical Intention), dan Orientasi Etis Dilihat dari Gender dan Disiplin Ilmu: Potensi Rekruitmen Staf Profesional pada Kantor Akuntan Publik” dalam Jurnal Riset Akuntansi Indonesia, Volume 10(1), pp.43-67.

NCOR [National Council for Osteopathic Research]. (2014). “Quantitative Research Methods”. Available online at: https://www.ncor.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Quantitative_research_methods.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Ngun, T.C. et al. (2011). “The Genetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior” in Front Neuroendocrinol, Volume 32(2), April, pp.227-246. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3030621/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Nisfiannoor, Muhammad. (2009). Pendekatan Statistika Modern untuk Ilmu Sosial. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.

Phillips, S.P. (2005). “Defining and Measuring Gender: A Social Determinant of Health Whose Time Has Come” in International Journal for Equity in Health, Volume 4(11), July. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1180842/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Prince, Virginia. (2005). “Sex versus Gender” in International Journal of Transgenderism, Volume 8(4).

Purnamawati, Linda & Susandari. (2017). “Studi Deskriptif mengenai Leadership pada Siswa Kelas XII di SMAIT Miftahul Khoir Bandung” dalam Prosiding Psikologi SPeSIA (Seminar Penelitian Sivitas Akademika UNISBA), Gel.1. Available online also at: http://karyailmiah.unisba.ac.id/index.php/psikologi/article/view/6051 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Putri, Dinni Jufita. (2013). “Analisis Gender terhadap Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning, dan Prestasi Akademik Remaja dalam Pelajaran Matematika dan Bahasa Indonesia”. Skripsi Sarjana Tidak Diterbitkan. Bogor: IPB [Institut Pertanian Bogor].

Radford, L. (2010). “Layers of Generality and Types of Generalization in Pattern Activities” in PNA, Volume 4(2), pp.37-62. Available online also at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/12341228.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Rafiei, N. & F. Davari. (2015). “The Role of Human Resources Management on Enhancing the Teaching Skills of Faculty Members” in MATERIA SOCIOMEDICA: Journal of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Volume 27(1), February, pp.35-38. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4384864/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Razali, N.M. & Y.B. Wah. (2011). “Power Comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors, Anderson-Darling Tests” in Journal of Statistical Modeling and Analysis, Vol.2, No.1, pp.21-33. Available online also at: http://www.de.ufpb.br/~ulisses/disciplinas/normality_tests_comparison.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Robbins, Stephen & Timothy A. Judge. (2009). Perilaku Organisasi, Buku 1. Jakarta: Penerbit Salemba Empat, Terjemahan, edisi ke-12.

Rusznyak, Leanne. (2008). “Learning to Teach: Developmental Teaching Patterns of Student Teachers”. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Johannesburg: Faculty of Humanities, University of Witwatersrand. Available online also at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/39665592.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Ruzek, E.A. et al. (2015). “Using Value-Added Models to Measure Teacher Effects on Students’ Motivation and Achievement” in The Journal of Early Adolescence, Volume 35(5-6), pp.852-882.

Sawitri, Dian Ratna. (2009). “Pengaruh Status Identitas dan Efikasi Diri Keputusan Karir terhadap Keraguan Mengambil Keputusan Karir pada Mahasiswa Tahun Pertama di Universitas Diponegoro” dalam Jurnal Psikologi UNDIP, Vol.5, No.2.

Schunk, D.H. (1990). “Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy during Self-Regulated Learning” in Educational Psychologist, Volume 25, pp.71-86. Available online also at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ac47 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Setia, M.S. (2016). “Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-Sectional Studies” in Indian Journal of Dermatology, Volume 61(3), May-June, pp.261-264. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885177/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Skorikov, V. & F.W. Vondracek. (1998). “Vocational Identity Development: Its Relationship to Other Identity Domains and to Overall Identity Development” in Journal of Career Assessment, Volume 6(1), pp.13-35.

Smirnov, N. (1948). “Table for Estimating the Goodness of Fit of Empirical Distributions” in Annual Mathematical Statistics, Volume 19, pp.279-281, doi: 10.1214/aoms/1177730256.

Soedarwo, V.S. & T. Sulistyowati. (2010). Sosiologi Gender. Jakarta: Penerbit UT [Universitas Terbuka].

Sulthon. (2014). “Membangun Efikasi Diri untuk Meningkatkan Performansi Siswa di Sekolah” dalam Elementary, Vol.2, No.2.

Tabachnick, Barbara G. & Linda S. Fidell. (2006). Using Multivariate Statistics. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Taherdoost, Hamed. (2016). “Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument: How to Test the Validation of a Questionnaire/Survey in a Research” in IJARM: International Journal of Academic Research in Management, Vol.5, No.3, pp.28-36. Available online also at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319998004_Validity_and_Reliability_of_the_Research_Instrument [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Usher, E.L. & F. Pajares. (2008). “Sources of Self-Efficacy in school: Critical Review of the Literature and Future Directions” in Review of Educational Research, Volume 78(4), pp.751-796.

Wahyuni, Sri. (2013). “Hubungan Efikasi Diri dan Regulasi Emosi dengan Motivasi Berprestasi pada Siswa SMK Negeri 1 Samarinda” dalam Jurnal Psikologi, Volume 1(1), hlm.88-95.

Widayati, Nur. (2015). “Hubungan Antara Efikasi Diri dan Motivasi Berprestasi dengan Kreativitas pada Siswa SMA”. Skripsi Sarjana Tidak Diterbitkan. Pekan Baru: UIN [Universitas Islam Negeri] Sultan Syarif Kasim.

Widyaninggar, Anggi Ajeng. (2014). “Pengaruh Efikasi Diri dan Lokus Kendali (Locus of Control) terhadap Prestasi Belajar Matematika” dalam Jurnal Formatif, Volume 4(2), hlm.89-99, ISSN 2088-351X.

Winda, C., A.S. Rizal & T.S. Afriatin. (2017). “Implementasi Manajemen Pendidikan Islam dalam Membina Kepribadian Islami di SMA Islam Terpadu Miftahul Khoir Dago, Bandung” dalam TARBAWY: Indonesian Journal of Islamic Education, Vol.4, No.2, hlm.162-178.

Wulandari, S. (2013). “Pengaruh Efikasi Diri terhadap Minat Berwirausaha pada Siswa Kelas XII di SMK Negeri 1 Surabaya” dalam JPTN: Jurnal Pendidikan Tata Niaga, Volume 1(1). Available online also at: http://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jptn/article/view/1902 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: March 11, 2018].

Zheng, Mingying. (2015). “Conceptualization of Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Studies in Health Science: A Methodological Review” in International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods, Vol.3, No.2 [September], pp.66-87. Available online also at: http://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Conceptualization-of-Cross-Sectional-Mixed-Methods-Studies-in-Health-Science.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: April 21, 2018].

Zimmerman, B.J. (2008). “Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive to Learn” in Journal of Contemporary Educational Psychology, Volume 25, pp.82-91. USA [United States of America]: Graduate School and University Center of State University of New York.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2121/edu-ijes.v11i1.1046

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.2121/edu-ijes.v11i1.1046.g940


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 EDUCARE

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lisensi Creative Commons

EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies. Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional

View My Stats