The Impact of Discovery Learning and Critical Thinking towards Learning Outcomes of Indonesian History

Muhammad Adi Saputra, Umasih Umasih, Sarkadi Sarkadi

Abstract


ABSTRACT: The impact of discovery learning and critical thinking towards learning outcomes of Indonesian History. This research aims to find the influence of learning model of Discovery Learning and critical thinking on the learning outcomes of Indonesian History. The research was conducted at the SMKN (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Negeri or Public Vocational High School) 7 in Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, on the academic year of 2017/2018. The research method used was quasi experiment, with factorial design 2x2. Data analysis techniques used Two Ways ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Tukey test analysis. The sample involved 72 students, who were selected using "random sampling". The respondent variable consists of critical thinking; and measurements were made using a questionnaire related to critical thinking. The results showed, as a whole, that the students who were treated with Discovery Learning model showed high learning outcomes, when compared to those who were given the Direct Learning model; groups of students who have high learning independence and they receive the Discovery Learning has a higher learning outcomes in Indonesian History compared to those given the Direct Learning; groups of students who have low learning independence and they receive the Direct Learning have higher learning outcomes in Indonesian History compared to those studied in Discovery Learning; and, ultimately, there is an interaction effect between the learning model and the learning independence of the learning outcomes of Indonesian History.

KEY WORDS: Model Learning; Discovery Learning; Critical Thinking; Learning Outcomes; Indonesian History.

    

About the Authors: Muhammad Adi Saputra, M.Pd. is an Alumni of History Education Study Program, Postgraduate UNJ (State University of Jakarta), Jalan Rawamangun Muka, Jakarta Timur 13220, Indonesia; Dr. Umasih is a Senior Lecturer at the History Education Study Program, Postgraduate UNJ in Jakarta, Indonesia; and Dr. Sarkadi is a Senior Lecturer at the Civic Education Study Program, Faculty of Social Science UNJ in Jakarta, Indonesia. E-mails address: madisaputtra25@gmail.com, umasih_sejarah@yahoo.co.id, sarkadi09@yahoo.co.id  

Suggested Citation: Saputra, Muhammad Adi, Umasih & Sarkadi. (2018). “The Impact of Discovery Learning and Critical Thinking towards Learning Outcomes of Indonesian History” in TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies, Volume 10(1), October, pp.31-44. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI, ISSN 2085-0980 (print).

Article Timeline: Accepted (May 20, 2018); Revised (August 17, 2018); and Published (October 30, 2018).


Keywords


Model Learning; Discovery Learning; Critical Thinking; Learning Outcomes; Indonesian History

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmad, Abdul Razaq & Andi Suwirta. (2007). Sejarah dan Pendidikan Sejarah: Perspektif Malaysia dan Indonesia. Bandung: Historia Utama Press.

Alfieri, L. et al. (2011). “Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning?” in Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 103(1), pp.1-18.

Anderson, L.W. & D.R. Krathwohl. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom Taxonomy of Education Objectives. New York: Addision Wesley Longman.

Arniwati, Eni, Slamet & Chundari. (2014). “Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Discovery Learning terhadap Hasil Belajar Matematika Ditinjau dari Motivasi Belajar” in Jurnal Mahasiswa PGSD, Vol.2, No. 8.

Awang, Mohd Mahzan et al. (2016). “Historical Thinking Skills among Pre-Service Teachers in Indonesia and Malaysia” in Scientific Research: An Academic Publisher, Vol.7, No.1 [January]. Available online also at: https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=63000 [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Azhar, Khairil. (2017). “Human Agency in a Curriculum: An Analysis of an Indonesia’s 2013 Curriculum for Primary Level”. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Finland: Department of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, University of Tampere. Available online also at: https://tampub.uta.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/101688/GRADU [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Bartlett, M.S. (1937). “Properties of Sufficiency and Statistical Tests” in Proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Volume 160, pp.268-282.

Bell, F.H. (1981). Teaching and Learning Mathematics in Secondary Scholl. New York: WmC Brown Company Publisher.

Bloom, Benjamin S. (1979). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. USA [United States of America]: David McKay Company, Inc.

Brown, Emily S. (2006). “Discovery Learning in the Classroom”. Available online at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305174476_Discovery_Learning_in_the_Classroom [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Cahyo, Agus N. (2013). Panduan Aplikasi Teori-teori Belajar Mengajar. Yogyakarta: Diva Press.

Christensen, L. (1988). Experimental Methodology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Cobern, William, David Schuster & Betty Adams. (2010). “Experimental Comparison of Inquiry and Direct Instruction in Science” in SREE Conference Abstract Template. Available online also at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED514406.pdf [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Cox, D.R. (2006). Principles of Statistical Inference. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dean, Jr., David & Deanna Kuhn. (2007). “Direct Instruction versus Discovery: The Long View” in Science Education, Vol.91, No.3.

Dorier, J.L. & J.F. Garcia. (2013). “Challenges and Opportunities for the Implementation of Inquiry-Based Learning in Day-to-Day Teaching” in ZDM Mathematics Education, Volume 45, pp.837-849.

Drake, F.D. & L.R. Nelson. (2005). Engagement in Teahing History: Theory and Practices for Middle and Secondary Teachers. Upper Sadle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Elistiana. (2014). “Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Langsung (Direct Instruction) Berbantuan Gambar untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Siswa pada Mata Pelajaran IPA di Kelas V SDN 5 Basi, Kecamatan Basidondo, Tolitoli” in Kreatif Tadulako Online, Vol.4, No.9.

Fahruddin & Sugiyono. (2018). “Teacher Performance, Nationalistic Attitude, and Historical Awareness, Relationship with Learning Achievement” in Journal of Education and Practice, Vol.9, No.21, pp.28-35.

Felder, Richard M. & Rebecca Brent. (2005). “Understanding Student Differences” in Journal of Engineering Education, Volume 94(1), pp.57-72. Available online also at: http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Furtak, Erin Marie et al. (2012). “Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Studies of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching: A Meta-Analysis” in Review of Educational Research, Vol.82, No.3 [September], pp.300-329. Available online also at: [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Gelman, Andrew. (2005). “Analysis of Variance? Why it is More Important than Ever” in The Annals of Statistics, Volume 33, pp.1-53.

Gurses, Ahmet, Seher Demiray & Cetin Dogar. (2015). “A Design Practice for Interactive-Direct Teaching Based on Constructivist Learning (IDTBCL): Dissolution and Solutions” in PROCEDIA: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 191, pp.44-49. Available online also at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82820951.pdf [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Janssen, Fred J.J.M., Hanna B. Westbroek & Jan H. van Driel. (2014). “How to Make Guided Discovery Learning Practical for Student Teachers in Instructional Science” in Participatory Design: Integrating Perspectives of Students, Teachers, and Designers, Vol.42, No.1 [January], Special Issue.

Hamby, B.W. (2007). The Philosophy of Anything: Critical Thinking in Context. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

Hammer, David. (1997). “Discovery Learning and Discovery Teaching” in Cognition and Instruction, Vol.15, No.4.

Hanurawan, F. & P. Waterworth. (2011). “Developing Critical Thinking through the Discussion of Controversial Issues: Case Studies from Indonesia and Australia” in Social Educator, Volume 29(2), pp.12-21.

Hasan, Said Hamid. (2012). Guru Sejarah Indonesia: Isu dalam Ide dan Pembelajaran. Bandung: Rizqi Press.

Hasan, Said Hamid. (2013). “History Education in Curriculum 2013: A New Approach to Teaching History” in HISTORIA: International Journal of History Education, Vol.XIV, No.2 [December], pp.163-178.

Hosnan, Muhammad. (2014). Pendekatan Scientific dan Kontekstual dalam Pembelajaran Abad 21. Bogor: Ghalib Indonesia.

Hufford, David J. (2005). “An Analysis of the Field of Spirituality, Religion, and Health” in Metanexus Salus. Available online also at: https://www.metanexus.net/analysis-field-spirituality-religion-and-health-david-j-hufford/ [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Iru, La & La Ode Safiun Arihi. (2012). Analisis Penerapan Pendekatan, Metode, Strategi, dan Model-model Pembelajaran. Yogyakarta: Multi Presindo.

Johnson, Elaine B. (2009). CTL Menjadikan Kegiatan Belajar-Mengajar Mengasyikan dan Bermakna. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan, translated by Ibnu Setiawan.

Johnson, B. & L. Christensen. (2000). Educational Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Education.

Kao, Lillian S. & Charles E. Green. (2008). “Analysis of Variance: Is there a Difference in Means and What Does it Mean?” in NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information, Volume 144(1), January, pp.158-170. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2405942/ [].

Killen, R. (2015). Teaching Strategies for Quality Teaching and Learning. Cape Town: Juta and Company (Pty) Ltd., 2nd edition.

Kim, Hae-Young. (2014). “Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Comparing Means of More than Two Groups” in RDE: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics, Volume 39(1), pp.74-77. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916511/ [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Kirschner, Paul A., John Sweller & Richard E. Clark. (2010). “Why Minimal Guidance during Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching” in Educational Psychologist, Volume 41(2).

Kuh, George D. et al. (2014). Knowing What Students Know and Can Do: The Current State of Student Learning Outcomes Assessment in U.S. Colleges and Universities. Urbana: National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment.

Landsheer, J.A. & G. van den Wittenboer. (2015). “Unbalanced 2 x 2 Factorial Designs and the Interaction Effect: A Troublesome Combination” in PLoS ONE, Volume 10(3). Available online also at: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Magliaro, Susan G., Barbara B. Lockee & John K. Burton. (2005). “Direct Instruction Revisited: A Key Model for Instructional Technology” in Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol.53, No.4, pp.41-55. Available online also at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/30221208?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Mayer, R. (2004). “Should there be a Three-Strikes Rule Against Pure Discovery Learning? The Case for Guided Methods of Instruction” in American Psychologist, Volume 59(1), pp.14-19.

Moore, Brooke Noel & Richard Parker. (2012). Critical Thinking. New York: McGraw Hill.

Moore, Kenneth D. (2005). Effective Instructional Strategies: From Theory to Practice. California: Sage Publications.

Mu, Zhiqiang. (2006). “Comparing the Statistical Tests for Homogeneity of Variances” in Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Paper 2212. Available online also at: http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/2212 [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Mukhtar & Martinis Yamin. (2008). Metode Pembelajaran yang Berhasil. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Mulnix, J.W. (2010). “Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking” in Educational Philosophy and Theory, Volume 44, pp.464-479.

Nguyen, Danh Duc. (2009). “A Study of the Implementation of a Problem-Based Learning Approach in University Classes in Vietnam”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Australia: School of Education, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University. Available online also at: https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:6757/Nguyen.pdf [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Paul, R. (2012). “Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking: Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on its Status Across the College/University Curriculum, Part 1” in Inquiry, Volume 26(3), pp.5-24.

Rahman, Abdul. (2016). “Teacher Professional Development in Indonesia: The Influences of Learning Activities, Teacher Characteristics, and School Conditions”. Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis. Australia: School of Education, University of Wollongong. Available online also at: https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Rakhmat, Jalaludin. (2008). Psikologi Komunikasi. Bandung: Remaja Rosadakarya.

Reynolds, Rebecca & Idit Harel Caperton. (2011). “Contrasts in Student Engagement, Meaning-Making, Dislikes, and Challenges in a Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning” in Educational Technology Research and Development: Special Issue on Motivation and New Media, Vol.59, No.2 [April].

Rosenshine, Barak. (2008). Five Meanings of Direct Instruction. Illinois: Center on Innovation & Improvement.

Rotherham, A.J. & D. Willingham. (2009). “21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead” in Educational Leadership, Volume 67(1).

Sani, Ridwan Abdullah. (2014). Pembelajaran Saintifik untuk Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Sanjaya, Wina. (2010). Strategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi pada Standar Proses Pendidikan. Jakarta: Penerbit Kencana.

Silbelman, Melvin L. (2013.). Active Learning: 101 Cara Belajar Siswa Aktif. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Nuansa, Translation.

Silva, E. (2009). “Measuring Skills for 21st Century Learning” in Phi Delta Kappan, Volume 90(9).

Singh, Roy Raja. (1991). Education for the Twenty-First Century: Asia-Pacific Perspective. Bangkok: UNESCO. Available online also at: http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/15_15.pdf [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Slamet. (2017). “Cultivating Multicultural Values in Learning History: A Unifier of the Nation’s Plurality” in The Journal of Educational Development, Volume 5(3), pp.404-413.

Slavin, Robert E. (2011a). Psikologi Pendidikan: Teori dan Praktik, Jilid I. Jakarta: Penerbit Indeks, Translation.

Slavin, Robert E. (2011b). Psikologi Pendidikan: Teori dan Praktik, Jilid 2. Jakarta: Penerbit Indeks, Translation.

Sudjana, Nana. (2017). Penilaian Hasil Proses Belajar-Mengajar. Bandung: Rosdakarya.

Suendartia, Mamik. (2017). “The Effect of Learning Discovery Model on the Learning Outcomes of Natural Science of Junior High School Students Indonesia” in International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, Vol.12, No.10, pp.2213-2216.

Taurina, Zane. (2015). “Students’ Motivation and Learning Outcomes: Significant Factors in Internal Study Quality Assurance System” in International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE), Volume 5(4), Special Issue. Available online also at: https://infonomics-society.org/wp-content/uploads/ijcdse/published-papers/special-issue-volume-5-2015 [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Thorp, R. (2014). “Historical Consciousness and Historical Media: A History Didactical Approach to Educational Media” in Journal Education Inquiry, Volume 5(4), pp.73-86.

Trianto. (2007). Model-model Pembelajaran Inovatif Berorientasi Konstruktivistik. Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka.

Tukey, John. (1949). “Comparing Individual Means in the Analysis of Variance” in Biometrics, Volume 5(2), pp.99-114.

Vey, Lynette Daphne. (2005). “Enhancing the Relationship between Learning and Assessment”. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Australia: University of Canberra. Available online also at: http://www.canberra.edu.au/researchrepository/file/ed [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Wahyudin, Dinn & Andi Suwirta. (2017). “The Curriculum Implementation for Cross-Cultural and Global Citizenship Education in Indonesia Schools” in EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, Volume 10(1), August, pp.11-22. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI, ISSN 1979-7877.

Walker, Stacy E. (2003). “Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking” in Journal of Athletic Training, Volume 38(3), July-September, pp.263-267. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC233182/ [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Wang, Yan et al. (2017). “Comparing the Performance of Approaches for Testing the Homogeneity of Variance Assumption in One-Factor ANOVA Models” in Educational and Psychological Measurement, Volume 77(2), April, pp.305-329. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5965542/ [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: May 2, 2018].

Westbrook, J. et al. (2013). “Pedagogy, Curriculum, Teaching Practices, and Teacher Education in Developing Countries”. Final Report: Education Rigorous Literature Review. UK [United Kingdom]: Department for International Development. Available online also at: https://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Portals/0/PDF%20reviews [accessed in Jakarta, Indonesia: April 1, 2018].

Widja, I Gde. (1989). Dasar-dasar Pengembangan Strategi serta Metode Pengajaran Sejarah. Jakarta: Penerbit P2LPTK.

Wiriaatmadja, Rochiati. (2003). Sejarah dan Pendidikan Sejarah: Perspektif Lokal, Nasional, dan Global. Bandung: Historia Utama Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

 

View My Stats