Historical Reflections on the Nation’s Character Education Model in Indonesia

Yudi Hartono, Samsi Haryanto, Asrowi Asrowi

Abstract


ABSTRACT: The Indonesian nation is faced up to the nation's character crisis. The indication of nation's character crisis is shown by the values shift, attitudes, and Indonesian behaviors. The cause factors can be traced historically. This study, by using the qualitative approaches and historical methods, tries to examine the nation’s character education of Indonesia. The findings show that since the beginning of independence in 1945, the nation's character education has been proclaimed by the founders of the nation. The nation's character education policy in the subsequent period gives effects to the nation's character education model in the schools. In the Old Order era (1950-1966), especially in the Guided Democracy era (1959-1966), tend to be indoctrinated, include seven basic materials of indoctrination, such as: Pancasila, Political Manifesto, the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia Socialism, Guided Democracy, Guided Economic, and Indonesia Cultures. Similarly, during the New Order era (1966-1998) tend to be indoctrinated too through Guidelines for Instilling and Implementing the Pancasila, Pancasila Moral Education, and History Education of the National Struggle. In the longer term, indoctrination will give bad effects to the citizens. Based on historical reflection in earlier times, in the Reform era (1998 to date), the nation's character education in the schools was integrated into every subject of study. Teachers and schools have the opportunity to develop a character education models in line with democratization, in order not to get caught up in indoctrination.

KEY WORD: Historical Reflections; Nation’s Character; Education Model; Indonesian Governments’ Policy. 

RESUME: “Refleksi Sejarah tentang Model Pendidikan Karakter Bangsa di Indonesia”. Bangsa Indonesia dihadapkan pada krisis karakter bangsa. Indikasi krisis karakter bangsa ditunjukkan oleh pergeseran nilai, sikap, dan perilaku bangsa Indonesia. Faktor penyebabnya dapat ditelusuri secara historis. Studi ini, dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan metode historis, mencoba mengkaji pendidikan karakter bangsa Indonesia. Temuan menunjukan bahwa sejak awal kemerdekaan pada tahun 1945, pendidikan karakter bangsa telah diproklamirkan oleh para pendiri bangsa. Kebijakan pendidikan karakter bangsa pada periode berikutnya memberikan efek pada model pendidikan karakter bangsa di sekolah-sekolah. Pada era Orde Lama (1950-1966), terutama pada era Demokrasi Terpimpin (1959-1966), cenderung diindoktrinasi, termasuk tujuh bahan dasar indoktrinasi, seperti: Pancasila, Manifesto Politik, Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945, Sosialisme Indonesia, Demokrasi Terpimpin, Ekonomi Terpimpin, dan Budaya Indonesia. Demikian pula, selama era Orde Baru (1966-1998) cenderung diindoktrinasi juga melalui Pedoman Penghayatan dan Pengamalan Pancasila, Pendidikan Moral Pancasila, dan Pendidikan Sejarah Perjuangan Bangsa. Dalam jangka panjang, indoktrinasi akan memberikan dampak buruk bagi warga negara. Berdasarkan refleksi sejarah pada masa-masa sebelumnya, di era Reformasi (1998 hingga kini), pendidikan karakter bangsa di sekolah-sekolah diintegrasikan ke dalam setiap bidang studi. Guru dan sekolah memiliki kesempatan untuk mengembangkan model pendidikan karakter yang sejalan dengan demokratisasi, agar tidak terjebak dalam indoktrinasi.

KATA KUNCI: Refleksi Sejarah; Karakter Bangsa; Model Pendidikan; Kebijakan Pemerintah Indonesia.

    

About the Authors: Yudi Hartono, M.Pd. is a Doctoral Student at the FKIP UNS (Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Sebelas Maret University) in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia; Prof. Dr. Samsi Haryanto is an Emeritus Professor at the Departement of History, Faculty of Cultural Studies UNS; and Dr. Asrowi is a Senior Lecturer at the FKIP UNS in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. E-mail address: yudihartono@student.uns.ac.id  

Suggested Citation: Hartono, Yudi, Samsi Haryanto & Asrowi. (2018). “Historical Reflections on the Nation’s Character Education Model in Indonesia” in SOSIOHUMANIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Volume 11(2), November, pp.135-146. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI with ISSN 1979-0112 (print) and ISSN 2622-6855 (online).

Article Timeline: Accepted (September 19, 2018); Revised (October 28, 2018); and Published (November 30, 2018).


Keywords


Historical Reflections; Nation’s Character; Education Model; Indonesian Governments’ Policy

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