The Hegemony of the Vikings of the Eastern Seas in Borneo during the 18th and 19th Century

Ismail Ali

Abstract


ABSTRACT: The 18th and 19th centuries saw the emergence of the Iranun and the Balangingi originating from the Philippine islands and the Sea Dayak of Sarawak as heroes or seafarers; and it was a nightmare for European and Chinese sailors whose sailing to the waters of Borneo and Southeast Asia at the time. This article – using historical methods, qualitative approaches, and literature review – seeks to analyze the actions of the Iranun, Balangingi, and Sea Dayak who often rob Western trade ships, and make their ships a commodity of commerce, that is in the form of slaves, has led to the origin of their own identity, from a nation called Iranun and Balangingi in the ancient Sulu islands and Sea Dayak of Sarawak (Borneo), to a new nation known as a “pirate” nation created by the West. In this context, their redefinition of a new nation gradually eroded and lost their original identity and became widely accepted by local communities in the Malay archipelago of the 18th century. This article is not intended to make moral judgments about the views, interpretations, and views of Western sailors and merchants from the deck of their sailing vessels in Southeast Asia. Thus, this article aims to reinterpreting the history of piracy based on the Malay cultural world.

KEY WORD: Iranun, Balangingi, and Sea Dayak; Malay Piracy World; Historical Interpretation. 

ABSTRAKSI: “Hegemoni Viking dari Laut Timur di Borneo pada Kurun 18 dan 19 Masihi”. Abad ke-18 dan ke-19 telah menyaksikan kemunculan orang-orang Iranun dan Balangingi yang berasal dari kepulauan Filipina dan orang-orang Dayak Laut dari Sarawak sebagai hero atau jaguh di laut; dan sekaligus menjadi mimpi ngeri kepada para pelayar Eropah dan China yang berlayar ke kawasan perairan kepulauan Borneo dan Asia Tenggara pada waktu itu. Artikel ini – dengan mengguna-pakai kaedah sejarah, pendekatan kualitatif, dan sorotan literatur – mahukan menganalisi tindakan orang-orang Iranun, Balangingi, dan Dayak Laut yang seringkali merompak kapal-kapal dagang Barat, dan menjadikan anak-anak kapal sebagai komoditi dagangan, iaitu dalam bentuk hamba, telah menyebabkan berlakunya dalam asal-usul identiti mereka sendiri, iaitu dari sebuah bangsa bernama Iranun dan Balangingi di kepulauan Sulu dan Dayak Laut di Sarawak (Borneo), yang telah lama wujud, kepada satu bangsa baru yang dikenali sebagai bangsa “lanun” yang dicipta oleh Barat. Dalam konteks ini, pengidentifikasian semula mereka menjadi satu bangsa yang baru secara perlahan-lahan telah menghakis dan menghilangkan identiti asal yang mereka miliki dan mula diterima-pakai oleh masyarakat setempat di kepulauan Nusantara pada abad ke-18. Artikel ini tidak bertujuan untuk membuat pengadilan moral berhubung tanggapan, tafsiran, dan pandangan para pelayar dan pedagang Barat dari atas dek kapal mereka yang berlayar di kawasan Asia Tenggara. Justeru, artikel ini bertujuan untuk mentafsirkan semula sejarah perlanunan dari perspektif alam tamadun Melayu.

KATA KUNCI: Orang Iranun, Balangingi, dan Dayak Laut; Dunia Perlanunan Melayu; Pentafsiran Semula Sejarah.

About the Author: Prof. Dr. Ismail Ali is a Lecturer at the History Program, Faculty of Art, Humanities, and Legacy UMS (Malaysia University of Sabah) in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia; and Chairperson of ASPENSI (Association of Indonesian Scholars of History Education) in Bandung, Indonesia, for period 2018-2023. For academic interests, the author can be contacted via his e-mail address at: ismailrc@ums.edu.my

Suggested Citation: Ali, Ismail. (2019). “The Hegemony of the Vikings of the Eastern Seas in Borneo during the 18th and 19th Century” in INSANCITA: Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, Volume 4(1), February, pp.55-76. Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI, with ISSN 2443-1776 (print) and ISSN 2657-0491 (online).

Article Timeline: Accepted (December 27, 2018); Revised (January 25, 2019); and Published (February 28, 2019).


Keywords


Iranun, Balangingi, and Sea Dayak; Malay Piracy World; Historical Interpretation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abas, Ismail & K. Bali. (1985). Peristiwa-peristiwa Berdarah di Sabah. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Ahmad, Qasim. (1991). Karya Sejarah: Pendekatan dan Persoalan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Ahmat, Maruwiah. (2006). Penjajahan Portugis dan Sepanyol ke Atas Asia Tenggara: Satu Pengamatan Semula. Shah Alam: Karisma Publications.

Alang, Datu Bandira Datu. (1992). Iranun: Sejarah dan Adat Tradisi. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Ali, Ismail. (2007a). Iranun, Balangini, dan Dayak Laut: Viking Timur di Perairan Kepulauan Borneo. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbit UMS [Universiti Malaysia Sabah].

Ali, Ismail. (2007b). Sejarah Perkembangan Industri Hiliran Berasaskan Perikanan di Negeri Sabah, 1750-2000. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbit UMS [Universiti Malaysia Sabah].

Ali, Ismail, Sabihah Osman & Baszley Bee Basrah Bee. (2006). Tun Datu Mustafa Hj. Musdtapa Datu Harun: Jasabakti dalam Pembangunan Sosial di Sabah. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbit UMS [Universiti Malaysia Sabah].

Ali, Ismail & Mosli Tarsat. (2017). “The Iranun in Borneo: Pirates or Heroes from the Maritime Perspective?” in Jurnal Sejarah, pp.27-38.

Appell, George N. (1965). “Death of Serip Usman in Rungus Tradition” in The Sarawak Museum Journal, Volume XII.

Ariff, Mohammad Raduan Mohd. (1995). Dari Pemungutan Tripang ke Penundaan Udang: Sejarah Perkembangan Perusahaan Perikanan di Borneo Utara, 1750-1990. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit UM [Universiti Malaya] Press.

Baharom, Saadiah. (1999). “Syarif Usman” in Ensiklopedia Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Melayu, Jilid 4. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Bala, Bilcher. (1993). “Masyarakat Kelabit dan Lun Bawang di Sarawak” in Jebat, Volume 21, pp.21-54. Available online also at: http://journalarticle.ukm.my/450/1/1.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 16, 2018].

Bala, Bilcher. (2005). Thalassocracy: A History of the Medival Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. Kota Kinabalu: Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

Bala, Bilcher & Baszley Bee B. Basrah Bee. (2002). “Tradisi Pemburuan Kepala: Satu Dekontaminasi ke Arah Pembangunan Masyarakat Pribumi di Sabah dan Sarawak”. Kertas Kerja dibentang dalam Borneo Research Council Conference: 21 th Century Borneo – Issues In Development, pada 15-18 Julai, anjuran Sekolah Sains Sosial UMS [Universiti Malaysia Sabah], tempat di Perpustakaan UMS.

Baradas, David B. (1968). “Some Implications of the Okir Motif in Lanao and Sulu Art” in Asian Studies, Volume 6(2), pp.129-168.

Belcher, Edward. (1848). Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang During the Years 1843-1846. London: Reeve, Benham & Reeve.

Bhar, Supriya. (1980). “Sandakan: From Gun Running Village to Timber Centre, 18798-1979” in Journal of the Malaysia Branch Royal Asiatic Society, Volume LIII(1).

Braddel, R. (1980). “A Study of Ancient Times in the Malay Peninsula and the Straits of Malacca” in JMBRAS: Journal of Malay Branch Royal of Asiatic Society.

Brown, D.E. (1970). Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate. Brunei: The Star Press.

Campbell, Gwyn. (2018). Bondage and the Environment in the Indian Ocean World. USA [United States of America]: Springer.

Casumpang, T.J.D. (2015). “Iranun and Balangingi: Victims of Ironies of Their Time”. Available online at: https://www.academia.edu/12361472/Iranun_and_Balangingi_Victims_of_the_Ironies_of_Their_Time [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 16, 2018].

Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Dalrymple, Alexander. (1808). Oriental Repertory. London: New Day Publishers.

Dampier, William. (1960). A New Voyage Round the World. London: Hummingbird Press.

Darmadi, Hamid. (2017). “Dayak and Their Daily Life” in JETL: Journal of Education, Teaching, and Learning, Volume 2(1), March, pp.101-105. Available online also at: https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/181331-EN-dayak-and-their-daily-life.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Defoe, Daniel. (1999). A General History of the Pyrates. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Dickson, M.J. (1954). Sarawak and its People. Kuching: n.p. [no publisher].

Edwin, H. Gomes. (1954). The Sea Dayaks of Borneo. London: Pluto Plays.

Esteban, Rolando C. (2016). “Research Agenda on History and Culture in Relation to Peace and Development in Mindanao Focus on the Homeland” in Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, Volume 16(1), pp.156-169. Available online also at: http://apssr.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/11.Research-Briefs_Esteban-062816.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 16, 2018].

Forrest, Thomas. (1972). A Voyage from Calcutta to the Mergui Archipelago Lying on the East Side of the Bay of Bengal. London: G. Scott.

Gin, Ooi Keat. (1995). “An Economic History of Sarawak during the Period of Brooke Rule, 1841-1946”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. UK [United Kingdom]: University of Hull. Available online also at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/2731572.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 9, 2018].

Halim, Yura & Jamillemar. (1958). Sejarah Brunei. Bandar Seri Bengawan: Brunei Press.

Halimi, Ahmad Jelani. (2000). “Lanun, Pedagang, atau Penguatkuasa: Kes ‘Pelanunan’ di Wilayah Johor Riau Sebelum Abad ke-19 M” in Jurnal Warisan Johor.

Hays, Jeffrey. (2015). “James Brookes on Piracy in Malaysia and Borneo” in Facts and Details. Available online also at: http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Malaysia/sub5_4a/entry-3618.html [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Heyward, Nigel. (1969). Sarawak, Brunei & North Borneo. Singapore: Easten Universities Press Ltd.

Hunt, J. (1967). “Some Particular Relating to Sulo in the Archipelago of Felicia” in J.H. Moore [ed.]. Notices of the Indian Archipelago and Adjecant Countries. London: Frank Cass.

Irwin, Graham. (1955). Nineteenth Century Borneo: A Study in Diplomatic Rivalry. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Ke, Xu. (2006). “Contemporary Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Singapore: Southeast Asian Studies Programme NUS [National University of Singapore]. Available online also at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/48638874.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 16, 2018].

Keppel, Henry. (1847). The Expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Dido for the Suppression of Piracy. London: Chapman & Hall.

Kotung, Manshur. (2003). “Perjuangan Syarif Usman di Kota Marudu, 1830-1845”. Unpublished Academic Exercise Thesis. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: Sekolah Sains Sosial UMS [Universiti Malaysia Sabah].

“Lanuns and other Pirates” in The British North Borneo Herald, on 17 January 1938. Available also at Arkib Negeri Sabah in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Lapian, A.B. (1975). “Orang Laut, Bajak Laut, Raja Laut” in BKI. Netherland: KITLV Press.

Lapian, Adrian B. (2004). “Laut Sulawesi: The Celebes Sea, from Center to Peripheries” in MOUSSONS: Recherche en Sciences Humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Es, Volume 7. Available online also at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273184858_Laut_Sulawesi_The_Celebes_Sea_from_Center_to_Peripheries [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 9, 2018].

Liss, Carolin. (2003). “Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia” in Southeast Asian Affairs, pp.52-69.

Majul, Cesar Adib. (1978). Muslim in the Philippines. Manila: Saint Mary’s Publishing, 3rd edition.

Matheson, V. (1979). “Concepts of Malay Ethos in Indigenous Malay Writings” in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Volume 10(2), pp.351-370.

Mohajan, Haradhan Kumar. (2018). “Qualitative Research Methodology in Social Sciences and Related Subjects” in Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp.23-48. Available online also at: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/85654/1/MPRA_paper_85654.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: January 3, 2019].

Mundy, Ridney. (1848). Narrative of Events in Borneo and Celebes Ocean to the Occupation of Labuan from the Journal of James Brooke. London: John Murray.

Munshi, Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir. (1963). Kesah Pelayaran Abdullah. Singapore: Malaya Publishing House.

Nicholl, Robert. (1996). Raja Bongsu of Sulu. A Brunei Hero In His Times. Selangor: Anaceme Art & Printing Sdn Bhd.

Omar, Asmah Haji. (1983). The Malay People and their Languages. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Osman, Sabihah. (1985). Pentadbiran Bumiputera Sabah, 1881-1941. Bangi: Penerbit UKM [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia] dan Yayasan Sabah.

Osman, Sabihah, Muhamad Hadi Abdullah & Sabullah Haji Hakip. (2001). Sejarah Brunei Menjelang Kemerdekaan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Othman, Mohd Ariff Dato’ Haji. (1988). Tuntutan Filipina terhadap Sabah: Implikasi dari Segi Politik, Undang-Undang, dan Politik. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Pringle, Robert. (2010). Rajahs and Rebels: The Ibans of Sarawak Under Brooke Rule, 1841-1941. Kota Samarahan, Sarawak: UNIMAS [Universiti Malaysia Sarawak], second edition. Available online also at: http://lib.perdana.org.my/PLF/PLF2/Digital_Content/PLF/000015/1008712.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Randrianantenaina, Jean Edmond. (2013). Maritime Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships: Exploring the Legal and the Operational Solutions: The Case of Madagascar. New York: Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea Office of Legal Affairs, the United Nations. Available online also at: https://www.un.org/Depts/los/nippon/unnff_programme_home/fellows_pages/fellows_papers/Randrianantenaina_1213_Madagascar.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Rawlins, Joan. (1969). Sarawak, 1839-1968. 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan.

Reber, Anne Lindsey. (1996). The Sulu World in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries: A Historiographical Problem in British Writings on Malay Piracy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Reece, Bob. (2002). The White Rajah’s of Sarawak: A Borneo Dynasty. Singapore: Archipelago Press.

Richards, Anthony [ed.]. (1992). The Sea Dayaks and Other Races of Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Rubin, A.P. (1974). Piracy, Paramontey, and Protectorates. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit UM [Universiti Malaya].

Rubin, A.P. (1988). The Law of Piracy. New Port, Rhode Island: Naval War College Press.

Rutter, Owen. (1986). The Pirate Wind: Tale of the Sea-Rubbers of Malaya. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sandin, Benedict. (1967). The Sea Dayaks of Borneo Before White Rajah Rule. London: MacMillan.

Sather, Clifford. (1997). The Bajau Laut Adaptation, History and Fate in a Maritime Fishing Society of South Eastern Sabah. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Singh, Ranjit. (1984). Brunei, 1839-1983: The Problems of Political Survival. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Singh, Ranjit. (2000). The Making of Sabah, 1865-1941: The Dynamics of Indigenous Society. Kuala Lumpur: University Malaya Press.

Sjamsuddin, Helius. (2007). Metodologi Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ombak.

Sopher, David E. (1965). The Sea Nomads: A Study of the Maritime Boats People of Southeast Asia. Singapore: National Muzeum Singapore.

Subedi, Madhusudan. (2013). “Some Theoretical Considerations on Caste” in DHAULAGIRI: Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 7, pp.51-86. Available online also at: https://www.cmi.no/file/2733-.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Tarling, Nicholas. (1963). Piracy and Politics in the Malay World: A Study of British Imperialism in Nineteenth Century Southeast Asia. Singapore: Donald Moore Gallery.

Tarling, Nicholas. (1971). Britain, the Brookes, and Brunei. London: Oxford University Press.

Tate, D.J.M. (1988). Rajah Brooke’s Borneo: The Nineteenth Century World of Pirates and Head-Hunters, Orang Utan and Hornbills, and Others Such Rarities Seen Through the Illustrated, London News and Other Contemporary Sources. Hong Kong: John Nicholson Ltd.

Tregonning, K.G. (1965). A History of Modern Sabah. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.

Vickery, Michael. (2003/2004). “Funan Reviewed: Deconstructing the Ancients” in

Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême-Orient, Année 90-91, pp.101-143. Available online also at: https://www.persee.fr/doc/befeo_0336-1519_2003_num_90_1_3609 [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Warren, James. (2007). “The Iranun and Balangingi Slaving Voyage: Middle Passages in the Sulu Zone” in Emma Christopher, Cassandra Pybus & Marcus Rediker [eds]. Many Middle Passages: Forced Migration and the Making of the Modern World. California: The Regents of the University of California, pp.52-71. Available online also at: https://libcom.org/files/[Emma_Christopher,_Cassandra_Pybus,_Marcus_Rediker(Bookos.org).pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 9, 2018].

Warren, James Francis. (1981). The Sulu Zone, 1768-1898: The Dynamic of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. Singapore: Singapore University Press.

Warren, James Francis. (1998). The World Capital Economy and the Historical Imagination. Singapore: Singapore University Press.

Warren, James Francis. (2000). The Global Economy and the Sulu Zone: Connections, Commodities and Culture. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.

Warren, James Francis. (2002). Iranun and Balangingi: Globalization, Maritime Raiding and the Birth of Ethnicity. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.

Warren, Jim. (1985). “The Prahus of the Sulu Zone”. Available online at: https://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/18216/1/prahus.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Wright, Erik Olin. (2002). “The Shadow of Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis” in American Sociological Review, Volume 67, pp.832-853. Available online also at: https://www.aacademica.org/erik.olin.wright/29.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Young, Adam J. (2004). “Roots of Contemporary Maritime ‘Piracy’ in Southeast Asia”. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. USA [United States of America]: University of Hawaii. Available online also at: https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/11454/2/uhm_ma_3160_r.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: September 2, 2018].

Zed, Mestika. (2008). Metode Penelitian Kepustakaan. Jakarta: Penerbit YOI [Yayasan Obor Indonesia].


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
INSANCITA: Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats